Guide to Egg Substitutes

Photo showing four egg substitutes for egg-free baking and cooking

When you can’t eat eggs or have opted to give them up, you become more aware of how frequently they’re used in both baking and cooking.

From cookies to cakes to scrambles and more, eggs provide a unique flavor and binding / rising properties that can be tricky to replicate.

But after years of experimenting with vegan and egg-free cooking, we’ve learned which egg substitutes are best to use and when. Read on for our top tips for egg-free baking and cooking!

Egg Substitutes For Baking

Bowl of flax seed and water for making a flax egg as an egg substitute

Flax Egg

A flax egg is made by combining ground flax seeds (also called flaxseed meal) with water and letting the mixture rest for 5 minutes to thicken to an egg-like consistency.

1 Flax Egg = 1 Tablespoon Flaxseed Meal + 2 ½ Tablespoons Water

Flax eggs are one of our favorite egg substitutes for vegan and egg-free baking because they are simple to make, versatile, and add extra omega-3s and fiber. They are excellent at adding moisture and a slight binding quality as well.

In many recipes, 1 flax egg can be used in place of 1 small chicken egg. However, they do not work in every recipe because flax eggs don’t bind, stiffen, or rise during baking quite like chicken eggs do. That’s why flax eggs don’t work well in egg-heavy dishes such as soufflés.

We have found that flax eggs work incredibly well in pancakesquick breadsbrowniesmuffins, and cookies.

Check out our full flax egg guide: How to Make + Use A Flax Egg.

Here are additional recipes using flax eggs:

Pumpkin Chocolate Chip Muffins // Simple Vegan Brownies // 1-Bowl Vegan Gluten-Free Banana Bread // 1-Bowl GF Banana Bread // Chocolate Chip Oatmeal Cookie Pancakes // 1-Bowl Vegan Banana Nut Muffins // 1-Bowl Chocolate Chocolate Chip Muffins // Toasted Coconut Pancakes // Refined-Sugar-Free Turtle Brownies // Peanut Butter Cup Pancakes // Coconut Oil Blueberry Scones

Chia egg dripping off a measuring spoon for our egg-free substitutes guide

Chia Egg

Chia eggs work similarly to flax eggs.

Simply combine whole chia seeds with water and let rest for a few minutes to produce an egg-like consistency.

1 Chia Egg =1 Tablespoon Whole Chia Seeds + 2 ½ Tablespoons Water

We prefer flax eggs over chia eggs, but for those with an allergy or sensitivity to flax or who are not able to find or make flaxseed meal, chia eggs are a great option!

You can use a chia egg as an egg substitute in many dishes, including quick breadswafflescookies, and more!

Electric mixer blades over a bowl of freshly whipped aquafaba


Aquafaba is the brine from a can of chickpeas.

For recipes where you’re looking for more of a rising quality, aquafaba is a better option than flax or chia eggs. It provides a lighter and fluffier texture.

When whipped into stiff or semi-stiff peaks, the texture is similar to whipped egg whites. Made this way, it works well in recipes for macaroons, meringues, and our Best Vegan Gluten-Free Waffles.

It can also be added to recipes unwhipped as an egg-like binder, such as in these Vegan Gluten-Free Sugar Cookies.

Read our full guide to Aquafaba here.

For additional inspiration, check out these recipes using aquafaba:

Best Vegan Gluten-Free Sugar Cookies // 1-Bowl Ginger Cookies // Peanut Butter Cup Cookies (V/GF) // Best Vegan Gluten-Free Cornbread // 1-Bowl Vegan Pumpkin Roll (GF) // 1-Bowl Pumpkin Cake (V/GF) // Best Almond Meal Chocolate Chip Cookies (V/GF) // 30-Minute Baked Vegan Chocolate Donuts (GF)

Store-Bought Egg Replacers

We haven’t played around as much with store-bought egg replacers because it feels like just one more thing to have around in the pantry!

Plus, they tend to be made primarily from starches (such as tapioca and potato starch) that we already use in our DIY Gluten-Free Flour Blend.

If you’ve had success with a store-bought egg replacer, we’d love to hear from you in the comments!

Special Consideration

When recreating a recipe that uses eggs to create a custard-like texture, things get more complicated! We’ve had success recreating flan with agar agar (a gelatinous ingredient that comes from seaweed) and crème brûlée with a thick, cashew-based mixture. See our Easy Vegan Flan (No-Bake!) and Vegan Chai-Spiced Crème Brûlée.

Egg Substitutes For Cooking

We’ve found that flax eggs work well as a binder in vegan meatballs, fritters, and even stuffing! And aquafaba can be used to make vegan mayo.

When it comes to scrambled eggs, frittatas, and omelets, though, the previously mentioned egg substitutes don’t work well. Luckily, there are suitable alternatives!

Using a rubber spatula to cook a vegan egg in a nonstick pan

Similar to the Just Egg vegan egg substitute found in grocery stores, these recipes made with split yellow mung beans are shockingly reminiscent of real eggs:

As for egg-free scrambles and omelets, tofu and chickpeas make great stand-ins, and are used in these recipes:

We hope you found this resource helpful! For more guides, check out our Guide to Gluten-Free Flours and Guide to Making Dairy-Free Milks.

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  1. Kimberly Wagner says

    – [ ] Thank you for this guide to egg substitutes and which to use for different recipes! I’m new to eggless baking, and your recipes and advice are invaluable. A new health condition (plus my husband is vegan) requires major modifications (GF, DF, high fiber, low sugar, low fats, quick cooking in the instant pot- my nemesis) to my recipes and too many are disastrous failures! I’ve subscribed to your emails for years, and you are now my “go-to” for most recipes. I am especially grateful for your instant pot bean recipes! I’m thankful for all you do! You have helped me tremendously!

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Aw, thank you so much for your kind words, Kimberly! We’re so happy to be able to help! xoxo

  2. Lou ise says

    Love love your work .l have followed your food guide for a few years now
    Thank you so much for your good food and keep them coming we love them

  3. Martha says

    When substituting “flax eggs” for eggs in a semi cake-like recipe (Raspberry Crumble Bars) I’m adapting for a vegan friend, could/should I add 1 tsp baking powder to help it rise like it would if real eggs were used? Recipe already calls for 2 tsp baking soda. Thanks so much!!!

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Martha, we would keep the baking soda amount the same and just use the flax egg in place of the chicken egg. Hope this helps! xo

  4. Linda says

    Why do vegan bakers not use Bob’s Red Mill egg replacer? I use it with no problems. I have used it for cookies, quick breads, and cinnamon rolls so far with I feel like excellent results.

    Is it because of the ingredients?

    I guess I need to try flaxseed for egg substitute and see how that works.

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Linda, we find egg replacer can sometimes give a beany taste, but perhaps formulations have changed since we last tried? We love that you’re having success with it!

  5. John says

    Any ideas how I could use flax eggs on x 10 loaves of bread .

    If the recipe calls for 2 eggs per loaf and I want to make 10 loaves . Does that mean I need to make 20 flax eggs ??

    Any help appreciated

    I’m finding the loaves really wet and underbaked

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi John, we use flax eggs 1:1 as a replacement, so 20 flax eggs would be correct. However, depending on the type of bread you are making, flax eggs might not be the right replacement. Flax eggs are great at “binding” like chicken eggs, but chicken eggs add “lift” that flax eggs do not. This could be why your loaves are underbaked. Hope this helps!

  6. KK Tetrault says

    I love your beautiful site, book and gorgeous easy recipes! This guide is just what I need for my egg free cooking and eating. A product I’ve found to use in scrambles, since I don’t eat soy, is called Pumfu. It crumbles and cooks just like tofu but is made out of pumpkin seeds. I have also used it blended up, mixed with oat milk and spices to coat bread for French Toast- it was fabulous! I highly recommend it.
    Thanks for all you do! Your work improves my life!💕

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Aw, we’re so glad our resources are helpful, KK! We had Pumfu recently – surprisingly tasty =) Thank you so much for your kind words and for sharing your experience! xo

  7. Vivian Moon says

    Do you have control of what advertising is used in your recipes?
    There is now a “No toilet paper? No problem.” advertisement that is there multiple times and is just a bit out of place in the midst of a recipe!

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Vivian, so sorry about that! We don’t have much say in it, but we’ll see if we can get that ad removed. Thank you for letting us know!

  8. Therese Morris says

    Does chia eggs bind, stiffen, or rise during baking more like chicken eggs do? (at least more than the flax egg?)

    And have you tried grinding the chia seeds before adding water? I believe that would intensify it’s qualities/effect.

    Also, why do you prefer flax egg over chia egg?

    PS. I own a specialty organic bakery (Flavour du Jour) and trying to convert all my recipes to gluten-free versions so greatly appreciate your insight.

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Therese, they’re pretty similar and can usually be used interchangeably. We find when using ground chia, it’s a little harder to mix it in evenly. Hope that helps!

  9. Jasmine says

    Hi Dana, in my country we make baked pasta and baked rice as traditional dishes which use about 4 eggs per recipe. Since these dishes are not done anywhere in the world (baked pasta and rice are usually done without the need of any eggs but these particular traditional dishes can be cut like a cake) I haven’t come across a good vegan egg substitute for them. In this case the eggs are needed for binding. Would you be kind enough to suggest an adequate egg substitute in this case? Thanks!

      • Jasmine says

        Thanks for your reply 😊 I haven’t tried the store bought egg substitute for these particular recipes but maybe I should. The store bought substitute came in very handy for other traditional recipes so maybe it will work. Thank you!

    • Susan Miles says

      There is a Canadian egg substitute called Eggcitables made from chickpeas that is the closest thing to eggs imaginable. You can even make scrambled eggs. There are videos of the creator cooking with the product.

  10. Kristin says

    Thanks for this! I use your flax egg all the time in baked goods. Do you have a suggestion for an egg wash substitute? Something that will make pastries shiny when they’re finished baking.

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      I’ve experimented with aquafaba whipped with sugar into a loose “meringue” (which works pretty well). But that can be a lot of work. So I usually just mix coconut or olive oil and some maple syrup then sprinkle with cane sugar for some texture.

      • Jen says

        Hi Dana! What about the other way around? If a recipe calls for flax eggs, can I use real eggs instead? Is it a 1:1 ratio?

        • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

          Yes, usually! But there are some recipes where eggs will cause a more cakey instead of fudgy consistency.

  11. Katy says

    Hi Dana,

    Do you have a recommendation for an egg substitute for things like mayo that does not include legumes (like chickpeas). I have allergies to both but looking for something creamy for sandwiches and burgers.


  12. Laurie Carr says

    Hi Dana,
    I have a recipe that calls for 1/4 cup egg whites. What do you recommend?

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Laurie, we think whipped aquafaba would be the closest substitute. Hope that helps!

  13. Callie V says

    Hi Dana! Have you tried ground chia seeds with water? I’ve found that to work even better than flax egg in some recipes, like brownies as it gives a delicious chewy texture. Thanks for this helpful guide!

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi Stepahnie, egg-heavy recipes tend to be more challenging. But whipped aquafaba would probably be the best alternative. Let us know if you do some experimenting!

  14. Isabella says

    Hi, I’m making a fruit cake tomorrow from a non-vegan recipe, and it contains 3 eggs. Will using 3 chia eggs affect the final product?

  15. Ann says

    I am a newbie to Vegan cooking/baking, i.e. a few weeks. I have grandchildren who are allergic to all dairy, including butter and eggs, gluten and citrus. I was told by a person who is vegan that I can replace an egg with 1 TBS of cornstarch + 3 TBS water in cookies, cakes, breads. I went through the above and did NOT see that mix of cornstarch and water for baked goods. Is it a viable mix???

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hmm, I’ve never tried that! It seems like it might be a bit too drying / stiffening…

  16. Cole says

    You, my dear vegan compatriot, are so appreciated. I believe, have believed for some time now, that you were who Natalie Merchant was singing about in the song“Wonder”.
    I have been vegan for almost 8 years now (because vegans count!) and I am so glad I’ve had you as a buddy on this journey. I live in the middle of America where vegans are only recently not being flogged publicly … or seriously hurt for being different in general. A sensitive man in Kansas who also chooses not to eat animals and is not silent about it equals a right to hurt said sensitive vegan man. Obviously, I’m very off the topic of egg substitutes here and I so WANT to digress… but as I stand here in the back of the Dollar Tree surrounded by cruel and kind strangers alike, with my basket filled with options for a good meal – because of you, I am struck with an overwhelming feeling of gratitude. Thank you. Thank you for (all without your knowledge of course, until now) always being a click away with cooking wisdom and gorgeous photographs(!). And also for stepping in sometimes with a spatula to my chin telling me to “keep your head up, we’ll be home and cooking soon”. You are appreciated.


    (Oh, and the flax egg does quite well in blueberry muffins!)

      • Ann says

        Since I’m a beginner, I’m going to look in the grocery store for an egg substitute and try it. I do a lot of baking, but I’ve never used anything but eggs, butter, etc. I’m going to move slowly and I will come back to this site for various other ideas. TY for having this site. It’s great to see what you recommend and what others have used and recommend also.

    • Lala says

      Come visit sunny CA ( Palm Springs to be exact) and we will celebrate your compassion. You’re a pioneer. Be proud.

  17. Nancy Lambros says

    Hi! I’ve worked with Neat Egg for my muffins and brownies and it works very well. They are moist and delicious.

    Question for anyone: What do you do when you want to double or even triple a recipe?

  18. Melissa says

    You have such an amazing gift, your recipes are terrific. I’ve been using the chickpea juice years now. We use it in coffee as a foam topping, whipped cream for desserts, binding in recipes, make candy bark, etc. Also, if a cream or chocolate sauce broke, I splash a bit of hot chickpea juice in. I alwats have some on the stove if I’m making a sauce that may break. Many blessings! ✌?☺

  19. Cassie Thuvan Tran says

    Thank you so much for this post! The Follow Your Heart vegan egg is such a keeper as well. I want to try the JUST egg SO badly because I’ve heard it works fantastically!

    • TONYA says

      I love the Follow Your Heart vegan cheese! I didn’t know they have an egg product as well! I usually use the Egg for most recipes and it works well. Thanks for the info!

  20. Sarah says

    What is best to use as an egg substitute in something like a pumpkin pie? Using flax eggs hasn’t worked previously.

  21. S Doyle says

    I have had good results with Chia seeds. I have used them in meatloaf, lasagna, chicken fingers and baking. Have also used Paneriso egg replacer with good results.

  22. Florence says

    I made the Blueberry scones with Rosemary. since I didn’t have coconut oil I used Vegan Smart Balance.
    I used fresh Blueberries and it worked well. I have made this twice and it is most delightful. Best scones ever.

  23. Eryn Smith says

    I’ve recently started experimenting with Vegg Baking egg mix. I love it! The only downside so far is the strong sulfur smell when you initially mix it up but I haven’t tasted or smelled it in the finished product. Brownies, cakes, muffins, cornbread, and cookies have so far been a success.

  24. Sade says

    Good article, but a couple big ones were missed for cooked egg replacers: tofu, chickpea flour, and kale namak (black salt that adds an eggy taste). Either of the first two, or a mix of both, plus a pinch of the black salt will produce yummy and convincing vegan frittatas, omelets, and quiches.

  25. Therese says

    Hi, we use quail eggs as an egg-substitute. I am allergic to both egg white and egg yolk, plus caseine (milk etc) and wheat, and I find no responses when I use it. Anyone ever tried them? About 3 quail eggs is similar to one regular egg when using to bake.

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hi there! If it works for you, great! We more often use applesauce in place of oil. But it makes sense that it would add moisture like eggs! Just know it doesn’t help with binding.

  26. Tasie says

    Thanks for the great info!

    What’s a good substitute for eggs when making bread? It’s difficult to find a good GF recipe for bread that does not contain eggs! It sounds like the aquafaba would do the trick, however I’m intolerant to beans as well. If you have any other suggestions, it would be greatly appreciated!!

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      Agreed! I usually use it in addition to other egg substitutes for sweetness and moisture as it doesn’t help bind.

  27. Lori says

    Hi Dana, thank you so much for this bevy of info :) I am gluten free, egg free and dairy free due to major food sensitivities and I am always looking for recipes without those ingredients. You have been so helpful in that regard and we truly enjoy many of your recipes !!

  28. Robyn King says

    I wanted to let you know I own a small boutique bakery specializing in Gluten Free, Vegan and Allergy Friendly Bakery and only Use Bobs Red Mill Egg Replacer. It’s wonderful for all the desserts I make, great binder, made in a dedicated facility, affordable, easy to use. I’ve used other brands and for me personally they don’t work. Just wanted you to know my thoughts

  29. Amanda says

    I have had GREAT success with store bought egg replacers! My go-to is Bob’s Red Mill egg replacer. I’ve used it in almost every single cookie recipe I’ve made, every bread and muffin recipe I’ve baked, and all my pancakes and waffles! I find the flavor to be untraceable where as sometimes the flax egg leaves a nutty, earthy flavor that I don’t always want in my baking. I love this egg replacer because of how easy it is to use and I’ve never had an issue finding it (target, Whole Foods, even online!) I do find that it can be slightly harder to “mix in” completely if a recipe specifically calls for “eggs, butter and sugar creamed together” but it hasn’t effected the recipe enough for me to stop using it! Hope this is helpful to someone :)

  30. Laurel says

    I would love to see you experiment with “The Plant Based Egg” since I don’t do as much baking as I used to (although I think I will in my head).
    I have tried this product and I really think it will work in most instances. The only problem I’ve had with it was when my husband sprinkled it over some veg before pan frying and let’s just say it was a lot more fiber than I’d been planning on that day.
    This product is analagous to mixtures I’d attempting at home but much more finely tuned. It consists of Psyllium Husk, Flaxseed, Pectin (apple/citrus pectin and cane sugar), Agar, Milled Chia, Sunflower Lecithin. Just think of the possibilities. Plus, there’s a killer bread recipe on her website. :-)

  31. Judith says

    I make homemade ravioli, gluten free as well as with gluten. It calls for 5 eggs, what do you suggest for this recipe. It is just flour and eggs

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      That one will be a little more tricky and I haven’t figured it out yet! You need a source of fat and binding. So you could try subbing aquafaba and olive oil?

    • joe says

      Locally ravioli dough is made only with flour salt and water. Roll out as thinly as possible. Some people add semolina too half flour half semolina.

      PS that’s how I make it.

  32. Lynne says

    This is helpful and I do use all the methods above. I’ve found the Justegg work well in cookie dough and cakes.

    Thank you!

  33. Cathy Shea says

    Hi-what is the best egg substitute to use when baking gluten free breads. and what’s the best gluten free bread recipe?

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      I’ve not made a gluten free bread, but I’ve made plenty of quick breads. And typically I rely on flax eggs for those.

  34. Mark Landow says

    What would you use for an egg white wash substitute? I normally brush unbeaten egg white on to marzipan that I have browned under a broiler. It helps seal the top and retain moisture.

  35. Meredith says

    I love this! I’ve saved quite a bit of money and pantry space not buying other egg substitutes and just using flax eggs or aquafaba (although I did buy Just Egg, not knowing there were other options for scrambling or omelettes…thanks for the info!!). Plus I find flax meal to have multiple other uses that makes it worth buying a bag! I use flax eggs in vegan oatmeal chocolate chip cookies and they come out perfect every time. :)

  36. Sue says

    Wondering if you’ve found an appropriate egg substitute for store bought cake mixes or even for cake recipes from scratch? I’ve found when using just flaxseed meal and water, the center of the cake doesn’t rise properly and is very uneven, and in some places very dense. I’ve read that adding some baking soda/powder might help. In other cases have read that using 1 tsp baking soda and 1 tsp apple cider vinegar (for one egg) will do the trick. Ultimately looking for (if possible) a quick vegan chocolate cake recipe that rises properly and tastes really good. :)

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerDana @ Minimalist Baker says

      Hmm, I’m thinking aquafaba would be best here. But then again I’ve not tested it with cake mixes and can’t speak to that!

    • Terre says

      Hi Sue,
      I have a recipe for applesauce muffins, which are half applesauce, that uses 1 tsp each of baking soda, baking powder, and apple cider vinegar. I’ve not made it as a cake but a loaf and two sizes of muffins rose beautifully. (Terri Edwards,

      Hi Mark Landow,
      You can try these egg wash substitutes, using water to thin:
      – nondairy milk or yogurt
      – maple syrup, agave, bee-free honey
      – all fruit jelly or fruit compote
      – nondairy butter, using oil to thin

    • Amanda says

      Have you tried the chocolate cake mix+ can of Coke approach? Or yellow cake mix+ can of Sprite? This was how we always made cake in college!

  37. Diana says

    This is a great resource, thank you! I have been primarily using chia seed as replacement and I am curious about your preference of flax over chia. Have you found flax works better? Is it an availability issue? Taste preference? Have a great one!

  38. Leona says

    Thanks so much – I have been looking for a guide like this et voilà ?

    One question: What do you use for cakes so they don‘t become too moist and claggy?

    • Avatar for Dana @ Minimalist BakerSupport @ Minimalist Baker says

      Yay! We’re so glad you found it helpful! We tend to use flax eggs for gluten-free cakes. We find the key is to use the right combo of flours (for gluten-free at least) to achieve the right texture. If you have a specific cake type in mind, we’d recommend looking at the recipe specific to it (carrot, chocolate, gf chocolate, gf vanilla). Hope that helps!